Nitrate and nitrite are two ions largely diffused in the environment because they take part in the nitrogen cycle. Moreover, a great part of atmospheric nitrogen may be oxidized to nitrite and nitrate by microorganisms in plants, soil or water. The more stable form of oxidized nitrogen is nitrate ion, but, through microbial activity, it can be reduced to nitrite ion which is more chemically reactive. Nitrate and its salts are widely used, especially as inorganic fertilizers, and for many other purposes such as oxidizing agents, explosives, in the chemical industry and as food preservatives. This book discusses the agricultural uses, management practices and environmental effects of nitrogen fertilizers.